Prostaglandin analogue is a new class of hypotensive eye medicine produced for open-angle glaucoma care. There are currently two medicines available on the market, latanoprost, and unoprostone. In the United States and Europe, Latanoprost was introduced in 1996. It is probably the most commonly used drug in this community and the most reported. The IOP is decreased with an action mechanism other than other medications, namely by raising uveoscleral outflow. It decreases intraocular pressure. There is no effect on the aqueous inflow. One decrease of 50 microgram/ml once daily is the optimum dosage scheme, reducing IOPs by around 30% in patients suffering from glaucoma.

A more pronounced hypotensive effect is seen in conjunction with latanoprost and other glaucoma treatments, such as beta-blockers, sugar, and cholinergic agonists, or carbon dioxide inhibitors. Toleration of Latanoprost is fine. This medication achieves a plasma concentration below the one required to activate the FP receptor and its favorable systemic tolerance profile can be clarified. The most negative effect on the eyes is increased iris pigmentation because of increased melanin production in iris stroma melanocytes.

It’s most common in green-brown eyes and may be permanent. Low-frequency macular cystoid edema, mainly in predisposed eyes, was also reported. In 1994, Unoprostone was introduced in Japan, but little experience is available outside of the Japanese market with this medication and there is little documentation. Its key action mechanism is on exit, but this has not yet been thoroughly clarified. Twice daily, 1 drop of 1.2 mg/ml is recommended for use. There have been no comparative human studies among the 2 medications.

Prostaglandin Analogs For Glaucoma

Glaucoma, mostly leading to high intraocular pressure, is among the leading causes of blindness (IOP). Higher IOP can cause optic nerve damage that can lead to permanent loss of vision.

Prostaglandin analogue eye drops are known to be initially used in glaucoma in most situations. At present, 4 different types of bimatoprost, latanoprost, tafluprost, and travoprost are presently available for this indication.

In patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension, all 4 of these medications are indicated to minimize IOP. These medicines improve the drainage of water flow from the eye, which reduces the IOP.

Prostaglandin analogues will normally reduce the IOP by 25% to 30%. Since it takes about 2 weeks for medicines to reach the full therapeutic benefit, efficacy follow-up should take place not earlier than two weeks.

For all 4 drugs, the recommended dosage is 1 drop once a day. More frequently, prostaglandin analogues have been used to reduce the IOP effect of the drugs.

There is no evidence at this time to use or dose these drugs more than once a day together. Therefore, if a patient is on duplicate prostaglandin analogue therapy, or if the dosage is more than one drop for every eye every day, a pharmacist should challenge the prescriber.

The manufacturer and the product inserts recommend administering these medications at night. When the medication was given during the evening versus in the morning, the optimal effects of latanoprost (Xalatan) were found. When administered in the morning or evening, Travoprost (Travatan) did not show any difference; however, the insert package still recommends the dose given in the night.

The patient can instil those drops regularly without missing doses as the advantages of taking the drug are greater each morning than taking the drug at night or missing doses. In general, commitment to regular care is more critical than the time of day.

With contact lenses, both prostaglandin analogues can be used. Until instilling the medication, however, contact lenses should be removed. After 15 minutes of the eye drop, the lenses will be reinserted.

Analogs of prostaglandin may be used for other eye drops as well. The latest recommendation is a minimum of 5 minutes to separate drop administration.

In the 4 analogues of prostaglandin, side effects are identical. Changes in your eyelash and hair are one common side effect (fine, barely noticeable hairs).

These modifications include length, thickness, pigmentation, and number increases. On the eyelid skin or corner of the eye, fine hair may rarely grow.

Some eyelashes may grow too wide and rub on the cornea causing discomfort and a feeling for the foreign body. These results seem reversible after treatment has been discontinued.

Latanoprost (Xalatan)

The only prostaglandin analogue available as a generic is actually this eye drop.

Due to its quick breakup and ineffectiveness over the other 3 prostaglandin analogues, latanoprost is sold in bottles of 5 mL of fluid only.

Since this medication is unstable, the unopened bottle should be stored in the refrigerator. The bottle can be kept for up to 6 weeks when it is opened at room temperature.

The name Xalatan is given in a flatter, flexible clear plastic bottle, which is also in a round bottle of a little more rigid plastic than the generic latanoprost drops. If a patient has issues with the bottle, it may make a difference.

Travoprost – Travoprost (Travatan, Travatan Z)

Travatan Z’s generic version was approved by the FDA, but only the brand name version is available on the market at this time.

Travoprost imitates latanoprost most closely. Travatan Z in 2.5mL solution in a 4-mL container, and Travatan Z in a 7.5 mL bottle in 5-mL solution.

Travatan Z is an updated benzalkonium chloride replacement solution, a proven preservative for eye irritations, by an ionic tampon preservative, Sofia, more gentle on the eye’s surface. For people with eye sensitivities, this is an alternative.

Travatan’s eye drops should not be kept in the fridge but are appropriate if the patient likes a cool eye feel. The medicines should be kept in a cool spot, however.

Like Xalatan, Travatan has a transparent bottle to track its stock, which helps its patients. Patients must be advised that their latest bottles of eye drops are supposed to be half full. This is achieved by the producer to promote the fluid’s deteriorating action.

Bimatoprost (Careprost)

A more concentrated 0,03% solution is available as this eye drop. It is the most frequently observed cause of conjunctival hyperemia by the four prostaglandin analogues.

The medicine is wrapped in a clear container that could take control of the eye drops for the patient more difficult.

Careprost can be used in 2.5 mL, 5 mL, and 7.5 mL sizes, which is one of the advantages. The newer analogues are not degenerating and can therefore be sold in bigger bottles.

A patient can have a supply of Careprost for three months at a time. This choice can be helpful for a patient with monthly refills difficulties.

Careprost can be used in 2.5 mL, 5 mL, and 7.5 mL sizes, which is one of the advantages. The newer analogues are not degenerating and can therefore be sold in bigger bottles.

A patient can have a supply of Careprost for three months at a time. This choice can be helpful for a patient with monthly refills difficulties.

The original wording of 0.03% showed a great deal in patients’ hyperemia. As both physicians and patients were prevented from using hyperemia, a 0.01% lower Lumigan intensity was established. Concentrations of preservatives were also adjusted with 65% lower to extreme hyperemia and equal clinical effectiveness.